The Access of Individuals to International Justice

Antonio Augusto Cançado Trindade

Oxford University Press, 2011

This book contends that the right of access to justice (at national and international levels) constitutes a basic cornerstone of the international protection of human rights, and represents a true right to the Law. It amounts, lato sensu, to the right to the realization of justice.  

Within such understanding,  the right of access to justice comprises not only formal access to a tribunal or judge, but also respect for the guarantees of due process of law, the right to a fair trial, and to reparations (whenever they are due), and the faithful execution of judgments. On the one hand, the right to an effective domestic remedy is a basic pillar of the rule of law in a democratic society. On the other, the right of international individual petition, together with the safeguard of the integrity of international jurisdiction, constitute the basic foundations of the emancipation of the individual vis-à-vis his own State.

Remarkable developments have occurred in this domain in recent years. It is submitted that the right of access to justice belongs today in the domain of jus cogens. Without it, there is no legal system at all. The protection of the human person in the most adverse circumstances has evolved amid considerations of public order. Such recent evolution has contributed to the gradual expansion of the material content of jus cogens.

 Furthermore, the very notion of "victim" (encompassing direct, indirect and potential victims) has been the subject of a considerable international case-law. Victims have had their cause vindicated in situations of utmost adversity, if not defencelessness (e.g., abandoned or "street children", undocumented migrants, members of peace communities in situations of armed conflict, internally displaced persons, individuals in inhuman conditions of detention, surviving victims of massacres). 


Table of Contents


1: The Historical Recovery of the Human Person as Subject of the Law of Nations

2: The Exercise of the Right of Access to International Justice: The Right of International Individual Petition

3: Access to Justice at International Level and the Right to an Effective Domestic Remedy

4: The Interrelatedness between the Access to Justice (Right to an Effective Remedy) and the Guarantees of the Due Process of Law

5: Access to International Justice in Relation to the Interaction between International Law and Domestic Law

6: Access to Justice: The Safeguard and Preservation of the Integrity of International Jurisdiction

7: New Developments in the Notion of ''Potential Victim'': The Preventive Dimension of Protection

8: The Protection of Victims in Situations of Great Adversity or Defencelessness - I

9: The Protection of Victims in Situations of Great Adversity or Defencelessness - II

10: Access to Justice of Victims of Massacres and Crimes of State

11: The Overcoming of Obstacles to Direct Access to Justice








Page last updated on 16 April 2020

Back to top