W3 Consortium in Geneva. (knowing more about the W3C and more at the Wikipedia). The W3C if offering some tutorials to learn how to use HTML. See for beginners: Getting started with HTML by Dave Raggett which is a short introduction to writing HTML, and also a tutorial on advanced features.
HyperText Markup Language (HTML/XHTML/XHTML2) Home Page which offer the W3C's home page for the HTML/XHTML 2 Activity. Here you will find pointers to specifications for HTML guidelines; information on how to use HTML to the best effect, and pointers to related work at W3C. See also the W3C HTML working group. (updated in 2010)
Definitions in the field of computer sciences. Try FOLDOC, (computing dictionary) at the Imperial College Department of Computing, London UK or the Webopedia, (online dictionary and search engine for computer and Internet technology definitions) or the Wikipedia for HTML and many other technical terms. Terms could be used also within generic search engines like Google or Bing, etc..
Basic standard elements of a web page:
HTML is [still today] the lingua franca for publishing hypertext on the World Wide Web. It is a non-proprietary format based upon SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) , and can be created and processed by a wide range of tools, from simple plain text editors - you type it in from scratch- to sophisticated WYSIWYG authoring tools. HTML uses tags to structure text into headings, paragraphs, lists, hypertext links etc. (HTML 4.01 specification in 1999 and 2011 HTML5 specifications.)
A short history of the web standards developments from 1990 (HTML) to nowadays. From 1998-2002, the W3C have developped a new markup language called XHTML: The Extensible HyperText Markup Language, now XML: "XHTML 1.0 is a reformulation of HTML 4.01 in XML, and combines the strength of HTML 4 with the power of XML. XHTML 1.0 is the first major change to HTML since HTML 4.0 was released in 1997.... You can roll over your old HTML documents into XHTML [with HTML Tidy Software, a new version of the old] Open Source HTML Tidy utility. This tool also cleans up markup errors, removes clutter and prettifies the markup making it easier to maintain...". Click here to download. Differences between HTML and XHTML ("Due to the fact that XHTML is an XML application, certain practices that were perfectly legal in SGML-based HTML 4 [HTML4] must be changed")
In 2010-2011, HTML is becoming a renewed web standard able to manage API's (Application Program Interface) for the web and the W3C is developping HTML5, the first new version of the standard since HTML 4.0 in 1998 ! "In 2003, the publication of XForms, a technology which was positioned as the next generation of Web forms, sparked a renewed interest in evolving HTML itself, rather than finding replacements for it. This interest was borne from the realization that XML's deployment as a Web technology was limited to entirely new technologies (like RSS and later Atom), rather than as a replacement for existing deployed technologies (like HTML)." (Full text here)
What is the lesson of this history of the technical development of the language used for the WWW ? That today, it is still important to understand how a basic HTML page is constructed in order to be able to develop easily one's own simple web page. Not always web CMS (Web Content Management Systems) are an immediate solution for the creation of a web page. This is true notwithstanding the definition of the CMS in Wikipedia as "a software system which provides website authoring and administration tools designed to allow users with little knowledge of web programming languages or markup languages to create and manage the site's content with relative ease".
All CMS are always offering the possibility to address the HTML coding and change the HTML tags instead of using a WYSYWIG editor.
URI "Uniform Resource Identifiers"
From W3C definition: "The Web is an information space. Human beings have a lot of mental machinery for manipulating, imagining, and finding their way in spaces. URIs are the points in that space. Unlike web data formats, where HTML is an important one, but not the only one, and web protocols, where HTTP has a similar status, there is only one Web naming/addressing technology: URIs. Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs, aka URLs) are short strings that identify resources in the web: documents, images, downloadable files, services, electronic mailboxes, and other resources. They make resources available under a variety of naming schemes and access methods such as HTTP, FTP, and Internet mail addressable in the same simple way. They reduce the tedium of "log in to this server, then issue this magic command ..." down to a single click. It is an extensible technology: there are a number of existing addressing schemes, and more may be incorporated over time."
The Browsers allow us to reproduce on the computer screen the content of a web page.
- Yahoo directory of Web Softwares, browsers.
- Statistics about browser's usage
Most used browsers: