Why is it that the EU promotes judicialization and appellate review in trade and investment relations while the US government has unilaterally disrupted the appellate review system of the Word Trade Organization and seeks to limit judicial remedies in trade and investment agreements? Is appellate review necessary for protecting rule of law, sustainable development and prevention of trade, investment and climate conflicts? Answers to these questions are influenced by the prevailing conceptions of international economic law. Commercial law conceptions and Anglo-Saxon neo-liberalism often prioritize private autonomy and business-driven arbitration and market regulation. Authoritarian governments tend to prioritize state sovereignty and intergovernmental dispute settlements. European ordo-liberalism emphasizes the need for embedding economic markets into multilevel human and constitutional rights and judicial remedies.
Professor Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann, European University Institute,
Professor Fabrizio Marrella, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice,
Dr Maria Laura Marceddu, European University Institute, and
Professor Bernard Hoekman, European University Institute