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Growth and Development Time-series Data (GGDC)

GDDCThe Groningen Growth and Development Centre (Netherlands) maintains a portal of macroeconomic historical data resources for research on diverse economic and historical topics:

  • medium- and long-run economic growth and development
  • economic performance and productivity
  • economic inter-dependencies, inputs and outputs
  • industrial sectors, labour and income, and
  • historical population trends, GDP and GDP per capita.

Coverage varies by data resource. Detailed descriptions and terms of use are on the GGDC data portal.


Penn World Table (version 9.1, 2018): A compendium of national accounts' data on relative GDP per capita as a measure of standards of living, productive capacity of economies, and productivity levels. Coverage is for 182 countries between 1950 and 2017. First-time users should read this AER article by Robert C. Feenstra, Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer. “By making use of prices collected in benchmark years by the International Comparison Program and using these to construct Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) exchange rates, PWT converts GDP at national prices to a common currency in USD, making them comparable across countries. The statistics cover the following sets of concepts: (1) real GDP, employment and population levels, (2) current price GDP, capital and total factor productivity, (3) National Accounts-based variables, (4) exchange rates and GDP price levels, (5) data information variables, (6) shares in output-side real GDP at current PPPs and (7) price levels, expenditure categories and capital.”

Maddison Historical Statistics: A database of worldwide population, GDP and GDP per capita from AD 1 to 2008 developed by Prof. Angus Maddison between 1978 and 1997. The University of Groningen Growth and Development Centre maintains and builds upon the database. An overview of MHS is given in Prof. Maddison's 2007 book Contours of the World Economy (EUI Library 330.9 MAD, 2007).

Total Economy Database: Annual database covering GDP, population, employment, labour productivity, capital services, labour productivity and total factor productivity for 123 countries. The Total Economy Database was developed by the Groningen Growth and Development Centre and is now maintained by The Conference Board (New York).

GGDC 10-Sector Database: Long-run internationally-comparable dataset on sectoral productivity performance in Asia, Europe, Latin America and the US. Variables include value added, output deflators and employment data for 10 broad economic sectors from 1950 to 2013. When using the GGDC 10-sector database, please cite: M.P. Timmer, G.J. de Vries, and K. de Vries (2014). 'Patterns of Structural Change in Developing Countries.'

EU KLEMS Database: Productivity data for selected EU member states, Japan and the USA; including measures of input and output growth, and derived variables such as multi-factor productivity at the industry level. The 2012 release includes basic output, input and productivity data for 34 industries according to the ISIC Rev. 4 industry classification. Coverage begins in 1970.

GGDC Productivity Level Database: Comparative data on inputs, outputs and productivity, at a detailed industry level for thirty OECD countries from 1997 to 2013. Complements the EU KLEMS database by providing comparative levels, and uses similar industry coverage, variable definitions and basic data.

Dataset on Comparative Historical National Accounts: Observations on Gross Domestic Product at current and constant prices, including an industry breakdown for 10 major sectors for the 19th and 20th centuries. Coverage is for 21 countries in Asia, Europe and North America. This dataset is a complement to Angus Maddison’s estimates of World GDP (above).

World Input-Output Database: Time-series data on world input-output in tabular format. 40 countries are covered, with a model for the rest of the world. Coverage is from 1995 to 2011. WIOD provides data on labour- and capital-inputs and pollution indicators at industry level.

Africa Sector Database: Internationally-comparable data on sectoral productivity performance in 11 Sub-Saharan African countries since the 1960s. Variables include annual series of value added, deflators, and persons employed for 10 broad economic sectors.


Related resources for EUI members

  • S&P Global Market Intelligence (Standard & Poor's) banking and financial database, covering public and private banks worldwide
  • Datastream (Thomson Reuters / Refinitiv) global financial and macroeconomic platform covering equities, stock market indices, currencies, company fundamentals, fixed income securities and key economic indicators for 175 countries and 60 markets
  • Global Financial Data (GFD Corp. / Finaeon) providing long-range financial data series on stocks, bonds, bills and other instruments, covering approximately 200 countries from the early modern period to present.
  • Amadeus (BvD / Moody's Analytics) database of comparable financial and business information on Europe's largest 520,000 public and private companies by total assets. 43 countries are covered.


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Contact: Thomas Bourke at [email protected]




Page last updated on 10 June 2019